Milk intake has decreased significantly over the past three decades while the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased. The authors of a Harvard research study note that for most of the past 30 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the American Heart Association have recommended low-fat diets for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, some researchers have questioned these recommendations out of concern that high-carbohydrate consumption might promote insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), which has been linked to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In a study published in the April 24, 2002 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association, Harvard researchers say that “Our study suggests that dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption may protect overweight individuals from the development of obesity and the IRS, which are key risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.” The research was supported by the Children’s Hospital League, Charles H. Hood Foundation, a grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, an unrestricted gift from General Mills Inc., and contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.